Two distinct signaling pathways including an “inducible” pathway, and non-inducible basal one control melanogenesis. The former inducible melanogenesis depends on UV irradiation and melanogenic hormones such as alpha-MSH (Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone), and is independent of races or genetic background.
Scientific Background for The Fact Stories
Natural PAK 1 (p21 activated kinase 1) Blockers
The PAK1-blockers could be the better alternatives for the conventional “direct tyrosinase-inhibitors” that often cause the so-called “white-spotting” irreversible side effect. Thus, our main studies are naturally focused on inducible melanogenesis. A variety of natural cosmetics containing natural anti-melanogenic compounds could be useful for so-called “skin-whitening or lightening” effect which would cause no side effect.
Natural Anti-Melanogenic and Anti-Aging Compounds Blocking the PDGFR-EGFR-PAK1-MITF-Tyrosinase Signaling Pathway
Gragem’s “The Fact” stories 1S, 2H & 3A as nature anti-melanogenic compounds are expected to block the PDGFR-EGFR-PAK1-MITF-Tyrosinase Signaling pathway.
The theoretical hypothesis is described as following Figure 1.
Figure 1. PDGFR-EGFR-PAK1-MITF- Tyrosinase Melanogenic Signaling Pathway
In Vitro 3D Microfluidic Cultivation Methods of Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) as Gragem’s Future Areas in Cosmeceutical and Medical Applications
Our research would focus on In vitro 3D microfluidic cultivation methods of cancer stem cells (CSCs) through sphere formation to establish better methods for the in vitro cultivation of CSCs and furthermore, to identify molecules that inhibit CSC proliferation as a high-throughput screening tool. These methods would be promising as a novel technology to isolate and expand circulating tumor cells in vitro. Also, in conjunction with emerging liquid biopsy research, the isolation and expansion of CSC-related cells through sphere formation may be a powerful technology to investigate the original tumors without highly invasive clinical procedures.